Womens Health

Diabetes Diagnostic Categories

By Frederick R. Jelovsek, M.D.,

There are now new recommendations about the diagnosis and classification of Diabetes. These have been well summarized by William F. Rayburn MD, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: Highlights from the American Diabetes Association, J Repro Med 1997;(42):585-6,

  • The term "insulin dependent diabetes" should be eliminated
  • The term "non-insulin dependent diabetes" should be eliminated
Diabetes Mellitus is now classified:
  • Diabetes Type 1 - beta cells of pancreas are destroyed usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency and it is either immune-mediated or unknown (idiopathic)
  • Diabetes Type 2 - individuals with insulin resistance who usually have a relative insulin deficiency
  • Impaired fasting glucose - individuals at risk for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease with a fasting plasma glucose greater than 110mg/dl and less than 126 mg/dl
  • Gestational diabetes - abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy
  • Normal - fasting plasma glucose of 110/mg/dl or less

The following table illustrates different ways to make these diagnoses:

Tests for Diagnosing Diabetes

Stage Fasting Plasma Glucose Casual Plasma Glucose Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Diabetes
(Type 1 or 2)
fasting plasma glucose >= 126 mg/dl casual plasma glucose >= 200 mg/dl 2-hour (75g load) plasma glucose >=200mg/dl
Impaired Glucose Homeostasis fasting plasma glucose >= 110 mg/dl and < 126 mg/dl . 2-hour (75g load) plasma glucose >= 140 mg/dl and < 200 mg/dl
Normal fasting plasma glucose < 110 mg/dl causal plasma glucose < 110 mg/dl 2-hour (75g load) plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl

It is important to keep in mind that these are criteria for diagnosis but not for monitoring treatment or goals of therapy.




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Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Diabetic Tendency in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome



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