The results of my urine culture showed GRAM POSITIVE COCCI, AND GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI. What are these? How does one get them, and how are they treated, and for what length of time?
These broad classes of bacteria can be almost any bacteria, over 20 different species. The next report will categorize the specific bacteria. The most common gram positive cocci is streptococcus and the most common gram negative bacilli in the urinary tract is E. Coli.
An antibiotic like amoxicillin should cover both of those but you will need to wait to see what the specific bacilli are.
Some bacteria, such as E. Coli, are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and are carried from the rectal area to the urethral area by sexual intercourse or wiping the wrong way particularly after a bowel movement (you should always wipe from front to back).